The results of the investigation show that using the O3/UV/H2O2 process can remove 90% of alkylphenols within 15 minutes, and the reaction time is shorter than other processes. Nevertheless, the mineralization efficiency of alkylphenols in the O3/UV/H2O2 process was only 60%, the results indicated that the alkylphenols only destroyed their own structure and formed numerous intermediate products. However, removal of total organic carbon in solution was ineffective. In order to enhance mineralization of alkylphenols, the oxidation time must be increased.
The optimum operating conditions for the O3/UV/H2O2 process to destroy alkylphenols found in this study were summarized as follows: UV light intensity = 1.9 × 10-6 Einstein L-1s-1, pH = 4, [O3] = 0.06mg / min, [H2O2] 0 / [AP] 0 molar ratio = 20. In which, the treatment effectiveness of OP and NP were 91.94% and 90.41% after 15 minutes, respectively.
The degradation products were analyzed by LC / MS, and revealed that the degradation of alkylphenols begins from shortening the alkyl chain. The following may be substitution of the hydrogen on chain with a hydroxyl radical, as well as an additional hydroxyl radical to the aromatic ring . The degradation intermediates are alkylcatechol, 1, 2, 4-trihydroxybenzene, hydroquinone, muconaldehyde, muconic acid, and other small fragments, such as alkanes, acetic acid, carboxylic acids and other compounds.
With the oxidation time increasing, the bio-toxicity (Microtox) and estrogenic activity of alkylphenols aqueous solution was reduced. However, the results of the investigation show that the intermediate products still had estrogenic activity. The possible causes with the formation of numerous intermediate products to enhance the synergistic effect on the estrogenic activity after alkylphenol degradation, thus, increasing the estrogenic activity of the compounds themselves.
List of Figures VII
Table directory X
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Chapter 2 Literature Review 4
2.1 The definition of environmental hormones and mechanism 4
2.2 alkylphenols sources and characteristics of the impact on the environment and the flow distribution and control the status of six
2.3 alkylphenols common way of handling 15
2.4 Advanced oxidation process 17
Characteristics 18 2.4.1 Hydrogen Peroxide
Principle 18 2.4.2 UV oxidation process
2.4.3 Basic characteristics of ozone oxidation principle 19
2.5 Ozone combined with UV / hydrogen peroxide process 25
2.5.1 O3/UV/H2O2 principles and procedural mechanisms affecting factors 25
2.5.2 O3/UV/H2O2 Apps Status 28
Chapter 3 Experimental equipment, materials and methods 33
3.1 Experimental apparatus 33
3.2 Experimental drugs 34
3.3 Experimental equipment installation 36
3.4 Experimental Methods 39
3.5 Analysis Method 42
Chapter IV Results and Discussion 52
4.1 Background Experiment 52
4.1.1 Experiment 52 hydrogen peroxide
4.1.2 Direct UV photolysis experiments 54
4.1.3 ozonation experiments 59
4.1.4 Summary 62
4.2 with UV ozone / hydrogen peroxide degradation process alkylphenol compound 63
4.2.1 Effect of initial pH of the solution 63
4.2.2 Hydrogen peroxide dose 67
4.2.3 The impact of ozone into the flow of the dose 73
4.2.4 Effect of the initial concentration of the reactants 78
4.3 the best combination of advanced oxidation process conditions of the study 81
4.4 of alkyl phenol intermediates and degradation pathway inference 87
4.5 of alkyl phenol and its intermediate products of biological toxicity study 97 with estrogenic activity
Chapter V Conclusions and Recommendations 102
5.1 Conclusion 102
5.2 Recommendations 104
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