Raising levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the frontal cortex of the brain significantly decreased impulsivity in healthy adults, in a study Conducted by Researchers at the Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center at the University of California, San Francisco.
"Impulsivity is a risk factor for addiction to many substances, and it Has Been That suggested people with lower dopamine levels in the frontal cortex tend to be more impulsive, " said lead author Andrew Kayser , PhD, an investigator and an assistant professor at Gallo of neurology at UCSF. "We wanted to see if we could decrease impulsivity by raising dopamine, and It Seems as if we can."
The study was published on July 4 in the Journal of Neuroscience .
In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, 23 adult research Given Participants were either tolcapone, a medication approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) That inhibits a dopamine-degrading enzyme, or a placebo. The Participants Researchers then gave the task to That Measured impulsivity, asking them to make a hypothetical choice between receiving a smaller amount of money immediately ("smaller sooner") or a larger amount at a later time ("larger later"). Each participant was tested twice, once with tolcapone and once with placebo.
Participants - Those Who were especially blackberries impulsive at baseline - were blackberries Likely to choose the less impulsive "larger later" option after taking tolcapone than they were after taking the placebo.
Magnetic resonance imaging Conducted while the Participants were taking the test confirmed That regions of the frontal cortex associated with decision-making blackberries were active in the presence of tolcapone than in the presence of placebo.
"To our knowledge, this is the first study to use tolcapone to look for an effect on impulsivity, " said Kayser.
The study was not designed to investigate the Reasons That reduced dopamine is linked with impulsivity. However, Explained Kayser, scientists believe That impulsivity is associated with an imbalance between dopamine in the frontal cortex, Which Governs executive functions: such as cognitive control and self-regulation, and the striatum, Which is thought to be involved in. the planning and modification of blackberries habitual behaviors.
"Most, if not all, drugs of abuse, : such as cocaine and amphetamine, Directly or Indirectly involve the dopamine system, " said Kayser. "They tend to Increase dopamine in the striatum, Which in turn may reward impulsive behavior. In a very simplistic fashion, the striatum is saying 'go, ' and the frontal cortex is saying 'stop.' If you take cocaine, you're Increasing the 'go' signal, and the 'stop' signal is not adequate to counteract it. "
If Adolf Hitler...2002-01-04 09:19:51 by justyouraveragecitizen
IF ADOLF HITLER...
by George Gerbner
If New York glitters like gold
and has buildings with 500 bars,
let me leave it written that they were built from the sweat of the canefields:
the banana plantation is a green inferno
so that in New York they may drink and dance...
From Grievious Happenings
by Pablo Neruda, translated by Victoria Ortiz
In 1934 Hitler came to power promising his German corporate handlers to 'fight communism. ' He had to send in the stormtroopers to smash all radical opposition.
Today he would look over the U.S. scene with some satisfaction. In the U.S. today there is no significant radical opposition to fight. There is no mainstream political choice to the one-party two-branches system. There is no socialist, communist,...
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